Definition : "Almost all children are focused on literacy learning."

Attention is a critical element in literacy learning. Research shows a strong relationship between inattentiveness in the classroom and low academic achievement. Studies have found that effective teachers of literacy regularly refocus children's attention on assigned tasks.

The teachers in our study frequently monitored whether children were watching, listening and taking part in learning activities. Gaining and maintaining children's attention was the most frequently observed teaching practice within the participation dimension, with children in the majority of classes demonstrating attention in all episodes. A variety of strategies was used by teachers to gain and maintain attention and the most common tool used was their voices.

The more effective teachers used many strategies in quick succession and carefully targeted them to specific children. These two video clips show some examples.